Category Archives: Features

Chimney Ridge

In the 1820s, the Hudson’s Bay Company and the North West Company amalgamated. ‎The result was that many of the Métis who had worked for these companies were laid off. Many of them moved to the Saint-Norbert area where they took up farming. There was very little wood for building homes so they dug holes in the ground, covered it with what wood and sod they could find and that was their home. In the winter, all you could see of these homes was the chimney. So, the area became known as Chimney Ridge. Today, bordering on Pembina Highway next to the fire station there is a housing development appropriately named Chimney Ridge.

Red River Floodway

The original Red River Floodway was built between 1962 and 1968 and cost $63 million. At the time, excavation of the floodway channel was the second largest earth moving project in the world (second only to the Panama Canal and larger than the Suez Canal project). Since 1968, it has prevented more than $40 billion (in 2011 dollars) in flood damage to Winnipeg.

The floodway operates by diverting a portion of the Red River flow around Winnipeg through the floodway channel. During flooding, as the river naturally rises, it spills over the floodway channel entrance and flows down the floodway channel. When this happens, the river water flows through two routes – through the city and through the floodway. At the same time, it drops below its natural level, south of the floodway inlet (Province of Manitoba – Floodway).

The floodway gates were put into operation in 1967, a year late for the 1966 flood. The gates can be viewed by approaching from Turnbull Drive on the west side of the Red River or Saint Mary’s Road on the east side. What you see from ground level is what looks like a fairly ordinary bridge. A control and lookout structure exist on the south side of the bridge. From inside it is a different story. Buried some sixty feet below the surface are the gates and mechanisms that make them work. To reduce the flow of water through the city and redirect it into the floodway channel the gates are raised from below.

Floodway gates during normal conditions
Floodway gates raised to regulate water levels

When the floodway gates are raised, the water level south of the floodway inlet is restored to its natural level which, in turn, allows more water to spill into the floodway. As Red River flows continue to increase, the level south of the inlet drops below natural again and the gates are raised further. This process continues as long as the flow in the Red River continues to increase.

The following photos were taken by Peter Loewen in 2012 when one of the two sets of gates had been drained of water so that repairs could be made. You can see the curved gate on the right of the pictures. Raising the gates is assisted by the force of the water on other parts of the structure. At the point where the photos were taken he was some fifty feet below normal water levels.

Floodway gates under construction

Floodway gates under construction


Sources and More Information

St. Norbert Heritage Park Floodway Trail
Red River Floodway Expansion Project Newsletter (PDF)
Manitoba Historical Society – Duffs Ditch
CBC Digital Archives – Duffs Ditch is Completed (Video)
CBC Digital Archives – The Winnipeg Floodway (Video)
CBC Digital Archives – Topic: Manitoba Floods
RM of Ritchot Artificial Flooding Study (PDF)
Province of Manitoba – Flooding Information

Chapelle de Notre-Dame-du-Bon-Secours

Chapelle de Notre-Dame-du-Bon-Secours

Father Joseph-Noël Ritchot promised the Metis that he would build a chapel if there was no bloodshed between the Metis and Governor McDougall during the Red River Resistance. Governor McDougall had come to the settlement to see about claiming the land for Canada but was met with resistance from Riel and his men as well as a wooden barrier (la barriere). When McDougall’s men were escorted out of the settlement by armed men, McDougall gave up and returned to Ottawa.

Ritchot and his parishioners built the chapel (La Chapelle de Notre-Dame-du-Bons-Secours) in 1875, to commemorate the success of this dispute which was eventually settled through negotiation and resulted in the inclusion of Métis land, language, and school rights in The Manitoba Act of 1870.

The open-air chapel, a type of amenity now rarely found in Manitoba, is an expression of Ritchot’s gratitude to the Blessed Virgin Mary for her protection during those troubled times. The Chapelle de Notre-Dame-du-Bons-Secours has remained a historical and spiritual landmark since its construction a few metres east of its current location.

The paintings on the ceiling of the chapel were added in around 1885 by the French painter Constantin Tauffenbach. Tauffenbach was from the German Romantic school of painters and moved to Manitoba in 1882. He was known for his spontaneous but confident style.

The paintings represent different episodes in Mary’s life. One is of the holy family, one is of the angel telling Mary she would bear Jesus and one is of the three virtues: Faith, Hope and Charity. There are also paintings depicting the twelve apostles, each holding a symbol of their identity.

In 1994, a Ste. Genevieve painter, Robert Freynet reproduced the original Tauffenbach paintings and the reproductions were mounted on the ceiling of the current chapel on May 31, 1994.

Sources and More Information

Saint Norbert Chapel – Article
St. Norbert Wikipedia
Features: La Barriere
Features: Ritchot
Historic Places: Outdoor Chapel

An Act Respecting Louis Riel

Louis Riel

Many efforts have been made to clear Louis Riel of his charge of treason in 1885. One of the first bills introduced to the House of Commons pertaining to the exoneration of Louis Riel was the Private Members Bill C-417 in the 36th parliament called, “An Act Respecting Louis Riel” (An Act Respecting Louis Riel – Bill C-417).

“The purpose of this Act is to reverse the conviction of Louis Riel for high treason and to formally recognize and commemorate his role in the advancement of Canadian Confederation and the rights and interests of the Metis people and the people of Western Canada.” (The full publication can be read here).

Reg Alcock, a member of the Liberal Party and MP representing Winnipeg South, brought forward the bill in 1998. He introduced in in parliament by saying,

“Mr. Speaker, the bill is the result of many years of hard work by dozens and dozens of people: representatives of the Riel family, Metis leaders from across Canada, members of the House, lawyers, historians, and even a former chief justice of Manitoba.

The bill will not bring Louis Riel back to life. Nor does it change our history. What it will do is change our heritage, change what we learn from our history. It will do this by removing the stain of treason from Louis Riel’s name.

At this time I ask for unanimous consent of the House, because of the unique nature of the bill, to broaden the names of the list of members supporting the bill.”

Some honorary members then agreed. He then said,

“Mr. Speaker, I served notice to all the House leaders and I appreciate their agreement.
Because of the unique nature of private members’ bills in that they stand in one person’s name, I would like to add the names of Mr. Denis Coderre, the member for Bourassa; Val Meredith, the member for South Surrey-White Rock-Langley; Suzanne Tremblay, the member for Rimouski-Mitis; Lorne Nystrom, the member for Qu’Appelle; and Rick Borotsik, the member for Brandon-Souris.” (Reg Alcock – An Act Respecting Louis Riel – Open Parliament).

Some honorary members agreed to proceed.

This bill, “An Act Respecting Louis Riel” sparked some controversy between the sponsors of the bill and conservative MP from Edmonton, Peter Goldring who put out a publication saying that,
“Those who want to exonerate him for his crimes more than 100 years later are ignoring the severity of his crimes.” (Peter Goldring – The Truth About Louis Riel).

According to Métis historians and scholars George and Terry Goulet, Goldring’s pamphlet was “riddled with numerous egregious errors and many omissions”. This pamphlet was condemned by the Conservative party and a representative of Stephen Harper said that, “This document is absolutely not, in any way, an initiative of our government or our party,” (Mp’s Anti Riel Comments Condemned by Metis and Government Officials).

Thanks to continued efforts by Manitoban politicians like Reg Alcock, Louis Riel is officially recognized as the Founder of Manitoba and the province of Manitoba has designated every third Monday in February as Louis Riel Day.

Sources and More Information

Parliament of Canada – Bills about Louis Riel

Alberta Metis – Louis Riel Needs No Pardon
Tory MP Calls Riel a Villian – CBC
Peter Goldring – The Truth About Louis Riel
Mp’s Anti Riel Comments Condemned by Metis and Government Officials
An Act Respecting Louis Riel – Bill C-417
Reg Alcock – An Act Respecting Louis Riel – Open Parliament

Red River Carts

A reconstruction of a Red River Cart now located in Place St. Norbert

Many Métis people were hired by the Hudson’s Bay Company as freighters, tripmen or buffalo hunters. They manned the York boats that took supplies to and from the Hudson Bay as well as other locations serviced by the HBC. Gradually, due to increased rail lines in their territory, the HBC stopped using the boats as the primary method of travel and relied on Red River carts instead.

The first record of a Red River cart was recorded by Alexander Henry the Younger who, in his journal, recorded the process of construction of a Red River cart for use at the Pembina Post. The first cart, made in around 1801 had solid wheels, made from cut logs about three feet in diameter. Starting in 1802, the cart was improved to include wheels with spokes that were dished about 3 inches to increase the strength and stability of the cart. The dished wheels could also be wrapped in canvas, removed and placed under the cart to ferry the cart over water. The cart weighed roughly 550 pounds and could carry 500 pounds when pulled by a horse and more if pulled by an ox.

Métis people with Red River Carts

The carts were made entirely of local wood so that repairs could be easily made without the use of metal or nails and was built using very simple tools such as the hand axe and screw-auger. Grease could not be used in the wheels because it would attract dust and debris and would wear down the wheel axles. For this reason, as well as the lack of metal in the carts, the carts made a characteristic squeal as they travelled across the prairie. The harness was made out of hides, first for the horse and later for an ox. In rare cases, when there was a heavy load and speed did not matter, the cart could be pulled by a team of two horses or oxen.

When on long journeys, these carts would travel in trains or brigades. A brigade consisted of ten carts with three drivers, an overseer, and a guide in front. An ox cart train could span two miles or more. Each of the oxen were tied to the cart in front of them and could travel like this at a rate of about two miles an hour or about 20 miles per day (The Red River Cart and Trails: The Fur Trade).

More than 2500 cart trips were made in service to the Hudson’s Bay Company who used them to transport goods and furs from the Red River Settlement to St. Paul. Starting in 1870, steam boats and trains became more common and the use of the ox cart to transport goods became rare.

In July of 2002, a group of people came together to recreate a cart train and travel from the historical Métis cemetery near Pembina, North Dakota to St. Norbert. Nine carts in total made the trip, 5 of which were built by hand in St. Norbert (Métis Culture & Heritage Resource Centre – Red River Cart Building).

Sources and More Information

The Red River Cart and Trails: The Fur Trade
Métis Culture & Heritage Resource Centre – Red River Métis Cart
Métis Culture & Heritage Resource Centre – Red River Cart Building
Métis Culture & Heritage Resource Centre – Red River Cart Journey
Wikipedia – Red River Cart

La Barriere

Riel and members of his provisional government.
On the 19th of October, 1869, a meeting was held at the St. Norbert parish that elected the Comité national des Métis with Louis Riel as the secretary. On October 20th, 1869, the Métis learned that Govenor McDougall from Canada was heading to them with arms and men. The Métis were already nervous about their land as they had had confrontations with surveyors in the past and were concerned about the upcoming land transfer. The Hudson’s Bay Company that owned and governed the Métis land was set to transfer it to the Canadian government and the Métis of the area were not well informed of the terms of the transfer and how it would affect them (Manitoba Culture, Heritage and Citizenship – St. Norbert).

On October 21st, 1869, Riel and a group of Comité members met in St. Norbert to discuss a plan to stop McDougall from entering the territory. A group of Métis militia built a three-foot-tall wood barrier blocking the Pembina Trail crossing. In the afternoon of the 21st, in addition to the barrier, about forty armed men were patrolling the area.

Alex McArthur, a HBC employee reports:

“…on a cold raw morning in the last days of October, 1869, I was approaching the River Salle (sic), some nine or ten miles south of Fort Garry…when word came from a house on the wayside that we should be stopped before crossing the river. When within a few hundred yards of the bridge an obstruction, something like a pole fence, appeared across the whole width of the road, which on either side was here bounded by poplar woods.

A few men with guns in their hands were standing on the other side of the barricade. One of their number was dispatched to a tannery which stood in a hollow close by the bridge, and in a few minutes returned with someone having authority. After a few questions some poplar poles were thrown aside from the slight construction in front of us, and we were allowed to pass through… we were told that the rather simple looking obstruction across the road was intended to keep out Governor McDougall and his whole retinue and, strange as it may seem, it effected this purpose.” (Métis Museum – La barriere)

The barrier was successful and prevented the government officials from occupying the territory and proving that the Métis would resist being taken over. This was the start of the Red River Resistance which ended in the creation of the Manitoba Act that officially declared Manitoba a province.

In 1906 a stone cross was erected by L’Union Nationale Métisse de St. Joseph near the La Salle river in honour of this event. The text of the monument reads,

“Here Nov. 1st, 1869 the Métis “barred” the road to the envoys of the Canadian government on their way to Fort Garry to establish a new government. The intervention of the Métis forced the authorities to undertake negotiations which brought about the creation of Manitoba and enshrined the rights of the population of Red River.”

The memorial now sits at Place St. Norbert. La Barriere park is also named after this historic event.

Sources and More Information

Manitoba Historical Society – Red River Resistance
Métis Museum – La barriere
Letter Authorizing Movement of La Barriere Cross
Derrick Nault – La Barriere Monument
Centre du Patrimonie – Souvenir de la Barriere
Manitoba Culture, Heritage and Citizenship – St. Norbert
The Metis and the Spirit of Resistance – Metis Museum
Report of the Select Committee on the Causes of the Difficulties in the North-West Territory in 1869-70 (1874)

Grey Nuns

The grey nuns were started by Marie-Marguerite d’Youville, a young widow, who founded the Sisters of Charity of Montreal. Mother d’Youville opened a house for the poor in Montreal and later took over the administration of the Hopital Général of Montréal. The general population of Montreal resented the change of management of the hospital and mocked the sisters by calling them “les soeurs grises”. This name meant “grey women” but could also mean “drunk women” in reference to Mother d’Youville’s late husband who was an alleged bootlegger. The group chose to embrace the name “The Grey Nuns” to recognize their humble beginnings (Grey Nuns – The Canadian Encyclopedia).

In 1819, Bishop Provencher of St. Boniface requested some religious to come to the Red River Settlement in Manitoba to assist in missionary work there. Seventeen of the Grey Nuns volunteered for the job and headed to Manitoba by canoe in a trip that took fifty eight days (Grey Nuns and the Red River Settlement – Manitoba Historical Society). Upon arrival in St. Boniface, the Grey nuns erected a small convent and school in St. Boniface (now the St. Boniface Museum) and established the first St. Boniface Hospital in 1871. In December, 1844, Sister Eulalie Lagrave of the Grey Nuns started to travel to St. Norbert twice a week to teach catechism classes. In 1858, St. Norbert became the site of a permanent Grey Nun Mission, a log convent used as a school. Sixty Métis children of the district enrolled immediately after construction (Convent Historical Significance Report).

With the assistance of a parish priest, Father Joseph-Noel Ritchot, Grey Nun’s Convent grew and changed between 1874 and 1889 to meet the educational needs of the community of St. Norbert. The Grey Nuns were able to build a bigger, more modern convent in St. Norbert in 1904, building around and using parts of the old convent. The new convent contained laboratories and textbooks and was able to meet Department of Education standards and offer certified high school diplomas. The convent became an all girls school for grades one to twelve. Many of the students boarded at the school with the sisters, including at one time Father Ritchot who stayed at the convent from January 1905 until his death in March 1905. The curriculum of the school was described by Father Ritchot,

“The program of studies is exactly the same (as in Lower Canada): French, English, history, mathematics, drawing and music, etc., with the exception that here they also teach spinning, weaving and knitting, besides sewing in old and new materials and other little industries that are favourable to good housekeeping.” (St. Norbert Lodge – Historical Buildings Commitee)

As well as vigorous studies, the students engaged in religious festivals, picnics and art and theatrical events. The sisters also maintained a farm to raise food for the convent and school tuition was often paid in produce. The neighbouring Trappist fathers could also use their farms to support the convent and students if needed.

In 1938, an old wing of the convent was demolished and a modern one constructed. In 1957, the entire building was renovated, the fourth floor removed, and the building altered. In 1958, the school celebrated its hundredth anniversary with 5,700 students having been educated there over one hundred years under the dedicated care of the Grey Nuns.

In 1959, the Seine River School Division opened a high school in St. Norbert as well as the primary school École Noël-Ritchot. The St. Norbert Convent closed within a couple of years and was sold. The building is now currently used as the St. Norbert Personal Care Home at 50 Saint Pierre Street.

The Grey Nuns were also important in establishing St. Mary’s Academy, St. Boniface General Hospital, The St. Amant Center and the Youville Community Health Centre among others.

Sources and More Information

Grey Nuns in The Canadian Encyclopedia
Grey Nuns Travel West – Manitoba Historical Society
The Grey Nuns and the Red River Settlement – Manitoba Historical Society
Saint Norbert Lodge Historical Report
Report on the Historical Significance of the Convent
Students at the St. Norbert Convent
Grade 11 Students at the St. Norbert Convent
Grey Nuns Wikipedia
Government of Manitoba – St. Norbert
Grey Nuns Residence in St. Boniface (Image)

Asile Ritchot

The orphanage and front gate in the 1930s

Les Soeurs de Misericorde (Sisters of Mercy), who arrived in Winnipeg in 1898, built a small hospital and a home for single mothers and infants. This hospital later became the Misericordia Hospital. In 1904, with assistance from Father Noël-Joseph Ritchot, the sisters founded an orphanage in St. Norbert and called it Asile Ritchot. The orphanage was to house the large number of babies that were being born at the hospital that were born to single mothers or to families that could not afford to raise a child. Some of the unmarried mothers lived and worked at the orphanage as well.

A room in the orphanage

The original orphanage was a brick house, owned by Joseph LeMay, a businessman and MLA from Quebec who died in 1893 (Manitoba Historical Society – Cityscapes Asile Ritchot). After the death of LeMay, the house and property was acquired by Father Ritchot who then gave it to the Sisters of Mercy. The original house had to go through many renovations to turn it into an orphanage and it eventually included kitchens, a chapel, a refectory, a cemetery, a large nursery and the sisters’ living quarters. Overcrowding and disease was a major problem in the small orphanage and babies spent much of their time in their cribs. A Manitoba Board of Health report stated that at one time, “The graduate nurse in charge of the older children has been moved up to the baby’s ward where she has sole charge of 64 babies under two years of age, many of whom are sick.” (Winnipeg Free Press – Manitoba’s First Feminists).

Despite plenty of hard work, the sisters struggled with lack of funding and insufficient facilities. The sisters relied on donations for revenue as well as produce they created on their own small farm. The mothers that lived there paid a small per diem that they could pay off by working for the orphanage or the hospital.

Children on the stairs of the orphanage

In 1911, thanks to funding from the church and the provincial government, the larger building with the red domed ceiling was built. This new building included large nurseries and dormitories, play areas, balconies, and food preparation areas. In 1945, when the government took over the care of orphans, children were transferred to Rosalie Home or sent to foster homes if necessary. In 1948, the orphanage was closed after caring for over two thousand children and eight hundred mothers. In 1954, the cemetery remains were relocated and the building reopened as a seminary for the Oblate Fathers. The Oblate Fathers left their seminary in 1970 and the building was taken over by X-Kalay, now called the Behavioural Health Foundation.

Sources and More Information

Manitoba Historical Society – Cityscapes Asile Ritchot
Centre du patrimoine – Aisle Ritchot
Manitoba Archives – Index of Child-care Institutions
Winnipeg Heritage Buildings – Asile Ritchot
University of Manitoba – Winnipeg Buildings
Winnipeg Free Press – Manitoba’s First Feminists
Asile Ritchot Grounds Photos

Jean-Baptiste Tourond

Jean-Baptiste Tourond with Louis Riel

Jean-Baptiste Tourond was born in St. Boniface in 1838. He married a Métis woman, Angelique Delorme, daughter of Joseph Delorme. They lived and farmed in St. Norbert on lot 42 and had 10 children, two of whom died before their first birthday.

On August 20, 1869, a survey party headed by Colonel John Stoughton Dennis arrived in Fort Garry to survey the land prior to the transfer of the land from the Hudson Bay Company to Canada. Both the land transfer and the surveying made the Métis of the area nervous. The Métis did not hold clear titles to their lands and had a different way of sectioning land than the English. The Métis had a system that sectioned the land into long narrow strips that each connected to the river whereas the English created square sections. While the Métis were concerned about their land, they were even more worried that they would lose their language and religion. Tourand was one of the original members of La Comité National des Métis de la Rivière Rouge. The Comité was formed with Louis Riel as secretary to represent the interests of the Métis during these difficult times.

On the 11th of October, 1869, Baptiste Tourond was among those who stopped the survey crew in St. Vital. Tourand also represented the St. Norbert Parish at the “Convention of 24” at which both French and English settlers got together to discuss the future of the settlement and to come up with a list of rights to use when negotiating with Canada.

After Manitoba was declared a province and the Manitoba Act was passed, Tourond was part of a group sent by Ritchot to establish a new parish along the Rivière aux Rats. By establishing a parish, surveying and settlement on the land could be stalled. Tourand was an intelligent and exceptional farmer and ensured the settlement was a success.

Tourond was so well known for his farming skills that he helped form the Societé Agricole du Comté de Provencher and was appointed to the board of directors of the Provincial Agricultural Association. In 1871, he was named Commissionaire d’École for St. Norbert and oversaw the creation of a new school. He also served as a justice of the peace for Provencher and was appointed a deputy sheriff in 1876.

In the mid 1870s, the Canadian government failed to recognize the two-mile hay privilege the original settlers owned before Manitoba became a province. Tourond helped to organize a petition and come to a resolution and declined a seat on the grand jury, Court of Queen’s Bench. As secretary to an assembly in St. Norbert, Tourond recorded protests and forwarded them to the Minister of the Interior.

Jean-Baptiste Tourond was a literate and respected farmer, delegate and director and a valuable member of the community.

Sources and More Information

Hon. Jean-Baptiste Tourond
Louis Riel and his Councillors
Jean-Baptiste Tourond
Louis Riel and the Dispersion of the American Metis
Wikipedia – Red River Rebellion
Riel’s Convention of Twenty-Four

Father Noël-Joseph Ritchot

Father Noël-Joseph Ritchot
Father Noël-Joseph Ritchot was ordained as a Roman Catholic priest at Collège de L’Assomption on the 22nd of December, 1855. In 1861, Ritchot volunteered to serve under Bishop Alexandre-Antonin Taché of the diocese of St Boniface and in early June, 1862, he was sent to the Red River Settlement in Manitoba. Upon arriving in Manitoba, Father Ritchot was sent to the parish of St. Norbert which he served for forty-three years (Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online – Ritchot).

Ritchot is known for helping his parishioners, most notably, Louis Riel. During the Red River Resistance in 1869, the Métis in and around St. Norbert were concerned about land claims being made around the area and the transfer of land from the Hudson’s Bay Company to Canada. A core group of Métis, led by Louis Riel, met at the parish of Father Ritchot to discuss plans for the resistance. Ritchot acted as an adviser to Riel and a chaplain to the resistance (Collections Canada People: Ritchot).

La Chapelle Notre-Dame-du-Bon-Secours

In 1870, Father Ritchot along with Judge John Black and Alfred H. Scott were chosen by Riel’s provisional government to negotiate with the Canadian Government. Before the group of delegates arrived, news of the death of Thomas Scott had reached Ottawa. Thomas Scott was an Irish-Canadian labourer in Winnipeg who was an ally of John Christian Schultz. Schultz was the leader of the Canadian Party and supported the acquiring of the Red River Settlement for Canada and was once imprisoned by Riel and his provisional government ( – Negotiating the Manitoba Act). Schultz was in Ontario when Ritchot arrived and was working to turn the public opinion against Riel. Thomas Scott’s brother had Ritchot and Alfred Scott arrested for the murder of Thomas Scott but were released shortly after.

Despite the hostility between Ontario and Quebec at the time, Sir John A. Macdonald negotiated with Ritchot and his companions and eventually passed the Manitoba Act. The diary of Ritchot during this time can be found here (page 131-160). The Manitoba Act officially made Manitoba into a province that contained the Red River Settlement and surrounding area. The Manitoba Act was based on a list of rights Riel had drafted and included rights to denominational schools, laws in both French and English and the use of both languages in court. The Manitoba Act also promised to provide the Métis with the title to land they had already farmed as well as 1.4 million acres of farmland for use by their children.

Ritchot continued to live and work at his parish in St. Norbert and during his time in St. Norbert, he was vital to the community. He helped to build a church, a convent, a rectory, a chapel and an orphanage. He also purchased 1000 acres on which the Trappists built a model farm and monastery. He was an important resource for the Grey Nuns for whom he helped upgrade their convent and lived with for the last few months of his life. Ritchot died on the 16th of March, 1905.

Sources and More Information

Memorable Manitobans – Noel-Joseph Ritchot
Manitoba Historical Society – Red River Resistance
Ritchot’s Resistance : Abbe Noel Joseph Ritchot and the creation and transformation of Manitoba – Phil Mailhot
Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online – Ritchot
Library and Archives Canada – Noel-Joseph Ritchot – Negotiating the Manitoba Act – Lettre du 2 mars 1870 de Thomas Bunn a Noel-Joseph Ritchot – Lettre du 18 mai 1870 de Noel-Joseph Ritchot a Georges-Etienne Cartier
Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online – Thomas Scott
Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online – Sir John Christian Schultz
Manitoba – Birth of a Province (PDF)